Taproot aims to combine the benefits of MAST [Merkelized Abstract Syntax Tree] as well as the Schnorr signature scheme so as to reveal less info once a Bitcoin [BTC] transaction takes place.
MAST permits for an alternate possibility of how a bitcoin transaction could have occurred to stay private, and Schnorr permits for a MAST-enabled transaction to occur while not revealing that MAST was employed to check transaction conditions.
In Wuille’s memo, he adds that the underlying points are addressed within the proposals:
“Taproot to make all outputs and cooperative spends indistinguishable from one another. Merkle branches to cover the unexecuted branches in scripts. Schnorr signatures offer wallet software to use key aggregation/thresholds within one input.”
As reported earlier, privacy is a key feature of bitcoin that’s expected but in practicality it doesn’t exist to a high degree. [Bitcoin] balances and addresses are public, and might be viewed on an open explorer by anyone.